An XMPP Echo Bot With Twisted And Wokkel

September 25, 2008

Twisted is one of the best ways to write XMPP software, but it is pretty poorly documented. It’s gotten even better with Ralph Meijer’s work on Wokkel, which extends Twisted’s XMPP support with subprotocols and other goodies. To show you just how easy Twisted and Wokkel make things, here is a simple echo bot.



Getting the things you need will probably take longer than writing the code. Luckily, your second project with Wokkel will materialize much faster.

You’ll need:

Once these are installed or in your Python path, you can proceed to the actual code.

An Echo Bot Sub-protocol

Our echo bot will speak a custom sub-protocol of XMPP. It will listen for any message stanzas and then reply to some of them. We’ll put this code in

from twisted.words.xish import domish
from wokkel.xmppim import MessageProtocol, AvailablePresence

class EchoBotProtocol(MessageProtocol):
    def connectionMade(self):
        print "Connected!"

        # send initial presence

    def connectionLost(self, reason):
        print "Disconnected!"

    def onMessage(self, msg):
        print str(msg)

        if msg["type"] == 'chat' and hasattr(msg, "body"):
            reply = domish.Element((None, "message"))
            reply["to"] = msg["from"]
            reply["from"] = msg["to"]
            reply["type"] = 'chat'
            reply.addElement("body", content="echo: " + str(msg.body))


Some things to note about this code. A MessageProtocol simply looks for messages and calls onMessage when one is received. MessageProtocol inherits from XMPPHandler which is the base class for all sub-protocols. XMPPHandler will call connectionMade and connectionLost on connect and disconnect, just like other Twisted protocol classes.

All the connection details and authentication are handled by the XMPPClient service, which we will see next.

The Application

Twisted includes an application runner called twistd which takes a .tac file as input. The tac file sets up the various services that compose the application and manages their life cycle. It takes care of making things a daemon, handling PID files, and many other tasks common to applications.

Here’s the echobot.tac file:

from twisted.application import service
from twisted.words.protocols.jabber import jid
from wokkel.client import XMPPClient

from echobot import EchoBotProtocol

application = service.Application("echobot")

xmppclient = XMPPClient(jid.internJID(""), "pass")
xmppclient.logTraffic = False
echobot = EchoBotProtocol()

Be sure to replace ‘’ and ‘pass’ with a real JID and its password. The echo bot application can now be started with twistd -ny echobot.tac or twistd -y echobot.tac if you want to daemonize it. Once it is running, go ahead and send it a message!

Every tac file must defines the application variable. Usually you’ll create some services for the application and then use setServiceParent to make them part of the application. For XMPPClient services, we have to use a similar method to activate our sub-protocol handler; we call setHandlerParent to make our sub-protocol part of the xmppclient service.

What Next?

Building sub-protocols is pretty straight forward. You can look at the MessageProtocol code for an example; it is less than 30 lines including blank lines and comments. Generally XPath expressions are set up to listen for particular stanzas, and these call specific handlers when the stanzas are received.

Wokkel also contains a pubsub client protocol and a pubsub service protocol implementation. Making little pubsub daemons should be quite easy with these.

I’m really excited about Wokkel, and hopefully I can write up some more complex tutorials soon.

An XMPP Echo Bot With Twisted And Wokkel - September 25, 2008 - Jack Moffitt